Along the Pacific coast, redwood, Sitka spruce and hemlocks predominate as overstory cover. When bears become a nuisance, they are trapped and eliminated to protect cattle and crops. We used patterns in the hair medulla and cortex to determine mammal species using reference catalogues (Arita, 1985; Baca-Ibarra y Sánchez-Cordero, 2004). Síntesis geográfica del estado de Nuevo León. Mammals represent a small portion of bear diet; this study, as well as other scat studies in the area has shown a low presence (16.8%) of vertebrate remains and an even lesser presence of cattle and goat remains (Niño-Ramírez, 1989). Symonds, M.B. 342-355. This paper constitutes a partial fulfillment of the Graduate Program in Biological Sciences of UNAM. A Progress Report. Seasonal nutrition of black bear in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park. 57-72, Análisis preliminar de la dieta de verano del oso negro (. Like brown bears, they will sometimes steal kills from cougars. [60], The fur is soft, with dense underfur and long, coarse, thick guard hairs. In general, oak acorns had the highest importance value (17.65%), followed by fiber (13.87%) and then Texas Persimmon (12.04%), other food items had low importance values (<7.0%). [107][108] Another study found that American black bears visited 48% of cougar kills in summer in Colorado and 77% of kills in California. Mamíferos de Nuevo León, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, (1999), pp. [56][page needed] American black bears were the only bear species the Kutchin hunted for their meat, though this constituted only a small part of their diet. [30][31], Surveys taken from 35 states in the early 1990s indicate that American black bears are either stable or increasing, except in Idaho and New Mexico. [40] They move in a rhythmic, sure-footed way and can run at speeds of 25 to 30 miles per hour (40 to 48 km/h). (1979), Maehr and Brady (1984) reported bees in stomach contents, but they reported higher amounts of bees than this study. [1], Sows usually produce their first litter at the age of three to five years,[41] with those living in more developed areas tending to get pregnant at younger ages. We dried the samples at room temperature and separated hair, insects, and plants manually to identify the diet components from each sample. Twenty different food items were detected, 73.4% plants, 16.8% animals (i.e., 16.1% invertebrates, 0.7% mammals), and debris (9.8%; mostly pulverized wood fragments and sand). Detenal (Dirección de estudios del territorio nacional). In most of the contiguous United States, American black bears today are usually found in heavily vegetated mountainous areas, from 400 to 3,000 m (1,300 to 9,800 ft) in elevation. American black bears on the East Coast tend to be heavier on average than those on the West Coast, although American black bears follow Bergmann's rule and bears from the Northwest are often slightly heavier than the bears from the Southeast. The metabolic rate of a hibernating bear will remain at a reduced level for up to 21 days after hibernation. [5][page needed], A small primitive bear called Ursus abstrusus is the oldest known North American fossil member of the genus Ursus, dated to 4.95 mya. As the fawns reach 10 days of age, they can outmaneuver the bears and their scent is soon ignored until the next year. [40] Many American black bears in northwestern North America are cinnamon, blonde or light brown in color and thus may sometimes be mistaken for grizzly bears. The PO was expressed as the number of times they appeared as a food component in the total number of feces collected (Martínez-Meyer, 1994; Hidalgo, 1998): For each element the importance index (PV) was quantified in cubic centimeters (cc) for each month and for each season. In aggressive interactions, American black bears produce deep-throated pulsing sounds. [6] This suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. They regularly climb trees to feed, escape enemies and hibernate. [40] The average annual survival rate for adult American black bears is variable, ranging from 86% in Florida to 73% in Virginia and North Carolina. Although an adult bear is quite capable of killing a human, American black bears typically avoid confronting humans. We identified 12 food items: 10 plants, and 2 animals during the dry season (January-July); 12 food items: 8 plants, and 4 animal species during the rainy season (August-October), and 10 different food items from the scats during the post-rainy season (November-December). International Conference of Bear Research and Management, 5 (1981), pp. The analysis of the scats revealed that black bear diet in the Sierra de Picachos, Nuevo León, Mexico is mostly plants with a low percentage of non-cattle animal items, being insects. Journal of Wildlife Management, 43 (1979), pp. Seed production is highly variable and usually asynchronous, suggesting that reproductive strategies are different between the species of oak (Marroquín, 1997). Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA. 1), located in the Sierra Madre Oriental, in the sub-province of the Sierras y Llanuras Coahuilenses, in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. [5][page needed] American black bears can do extensive damage in areas of the northwestern United States by stripping the bark from trees and feeding on the cambium. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental - Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres - Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio - Lista de especies en riesgo, Segunda Sección, (2010). 12-25. [citation needed]. [41] American black bears have been reported stealing deer and other game from human hunters. The vestigial tail is usually 4.8 inches (120 mm) long. [121], Terrible Ted was a de-toothed and de-clawed American black bear who was trained to perform as a pro wrestler and whose "career" lasted from the 1950s to the 1970s. Food items collected from scats are identified and related to diets through frequency, relative density, or volume (Hellgren, 1993). The time that American black bears emerge from hibernation varies. SNIP permite comparar el impacto de revistas de diferentes campos temáticos, corrigiendo las diferencias en la probabilidad de ser citado que existe entre revistas de distintas materias. All provinces indicated stable populations of American black bears over the last decade. [56][page needed] American black bears that live in northern coastal regions (especially the Pacific Coast) will fish for salmon during the night, as their black fur is easily spotted by salmon in the daytime. Zúñiga-Ramos, J.A. Corn crops and oak-hickory mast are also common sources of food in some sections of the Northeast; small, thick swampy areas provide excellent refuge cover largely in stands of white cedar. Warning sounds include jaw-clicking and lip-popping. The breeding period lasts for two to three months. Has a light brown nose and shiny black fur. Smithsonian Institution—North American Mammals:, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Able to live in varied climates: found in temperate rain forest in the north and, Haida Gwaii black bear or Queen Charlotte Islands black bear. American black bears are now considered highly efficient hibernators. The bear was shot while mauling a fourth victim. Black bears (Ursus americanus) are considered endangered in Mexico. Moose calf mortality in summer on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. [95] If it is able to capture a mother deer in spring, the bear frequently begins feeding on the udder of lactating females, but generally prefers meat from the viscera. Importance index was calculated as (Niño-Ramírez, 1989): We also quantified the importance (I) of each food item as Craighead y Sumner (1982): To estimate which season had the most trophic diversity (H'), we used the Shannon-Weaver index (Moreno, 2001): We used IBM SPSS Statistics 11 to do the Anova test to determine if the differences in the diversity of component among seasons were statistically significant using p<0.05 (Pardo and Ruiz, 2002). [118][page needed], Morris Michtom, the creator of the teddy bear, was inspired to make the toy when he came across a cartoon of Theodore Roosevelt refusing to shoot an American black bear cub tied to a tree. American black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location.They typically live in largely forested areas but will leave forests in search of food. [38] However, in the Liard River Hot Springs case, the bear was apparently almost fully dependent on a local garbage dump that had closed and so was starving to death.
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